King Ramses II became the face of the ancient Egyptian civilization and a symbol of light, brilliance, and grandeur. He is viewed as one of the greatest pharaohs who ruled Egypt. He gained the title Ramses the great, the keeper of harmony and balance, strong in right, elect of Ra. He was able to build a strong kingdom due to his great vision and endless ambition.
King Ramses II History
Ramses II was the third pharaoh of the 19th dynasty (1292-1186 BCE), he was born in 1303BC to his father King Sethi I and his mother Queen Tuya. He started his first steps as second-in-command during his father’s military campaigns in Nubia, Libya, and Palestine when he was only 14 years old and by the age of 22 years old he was leading his own military campaigns as his own co-ruler with his sons Khaemweser and Amunhirwenemef.
King Ramses II Family
King Ramses II had about 200 wives, most famous of them was his main wife Queen Nefertari, and he had about 111 sons and 51 daughters. He died in 1213 B.C at the age of 90 years old, his mummy was in Valley of Kings then moved to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo like his great statue that’s moved from Ramses Square to the entrance of the new Grand Egyptian Museum.
King Ramses II Achievements
After the death of his father king Seti I, he was declared the pharaoh and official ruler of Egypt in 1279 B.C at the age of 25 years old and for the next 66 years until 1213 BC, he was a genius military commander, he protects his kingdom against various enemies like Hittites, Libyans, Syrians, Nubians, the mysterious sea people and many more.
He commanded his army that reached to 100,000 men during his era who would send various campaigns and expeditions to Nubia and Levant to enlarge his empire and create a glory will never be forgotten. One of the most important battles in history is the battle of Kadesh between Ramses II and the Hittites in the city of Kadesh in 1274 BC which resulted in the creation of the first peace treaty in the history. Ramses was a great king known for his Stability and progress in this period.
King Ramses II Constructions
He built a new city in the Nile River delta called Per Ramses (house of Ramses) to be his new headquarters during the war with Hittites. Not only he is considered to be the second-longest king to ever rule Egypt, but he also gained quite a fame as a Great builder and protector of ancient monuments during his period.
He constructed many temples and restored many of his ancestor and predecessors temples and enlarged many like Amenhotep III’s Temple in Luxor, which contains the hall of columns in Karnak Temple, he also constructed his own temples, one of the largest was found in the west bank of the river called the Ramesseum temple that shows his campaigns to Nubia and the great achievements but unfortunately the temple was devoured by time and what remains are small ruins of a great architectural landmark.
Abu Simbel Temple
King Ramses II is known for building Abu Simbel temple in Aswan which acts as the final frontier for the Egyptian kingdom and holds two temples one for Ramses II to celebrate his victories in his battle and forever immortalize his legacy and the other for his beloved wife Nefertari.
He has many temples within Abydos and Luxor temple and his name was mentioned on every temple and artifacts and monuments like his colossal statues were made in the new kingdom ( 1550- 1070 BC ) and some of them are located all over the country and in the Egyptian museum such as his mummy in the city of Cairo.