The history of Cairo city extends back to about 5,000 years to the ancient times of Egypt were just 24 km southwest of Cairo the glorious city of Memphis, which was built to the great ruler Menes in 2925 BC and acted as the main capital of Egypt during the old kingdom (2686-2181 BC). Also during this time period, the magical Giza pyramids complex was built which holds one of the last remaining seven wonders of the ancient world “the Great Pyramid Of Khufu“, plus the sole Gordian of Egypt and oldest statue in the world “the Sphinx“.
The Roman Empire also played a part in molding the history of Cairo as the powerful fortress of Babylon was constructed in 525 BC to a base of the Roman kingdom but later on the fortress became the center of Coptic Orthodox community in the late 4th century and that’s why many Coptic churches are located around it like the hanging church and many others. In 970 AD everything changed when Cairo became under the rule of the Islamic empire by the Hands of Amr Ibn Alas, who constructed the new capital of Egypt Al-Fustat not far away from the Babylon fortress.
The Islamic rule of Egypt became prominent in Egypt as countless mosques were built in such as Amr Ibn Alas mosque which became the first mosque to be built in Africa. Also, the Ibn Tulan mosque in 870 AD to become one of the largest and the most perfect examples of Islamic architecture. Under the Fatimid rule, the city of Qahirah a.k.a Cairo was established in 970 AD and within the next centuries even during the Mamuluk various mosques were built which made the city to be known as the city of minarets.
Attractions of Cairo City
The attractions of Cairo city are truly infinite as behind every rock is a story, but there are a few monuments that must be witnessed such as:
Pyramids of Giza
The three great pyramids of Giza acted as the final resting place for the ancient pharaohs, there is the great pyramid of King Khufu, the second largest the pyramid of king Khafre and the smallest the pyramid of Menkaure, plus the Sphinx the protector of Egypt.
Saqqara Step Pyramid
One of the most unique monuments of ancient Egypt is Pharaoh Djoser Saqqara Step Pyramid, one of the oldest pyramids ever constructed.
The city also holds Al-Azhar mosque and university that was constructed to be one of Cairo’s greatest architectural masterpieces in the Mamluk dynasty.
Salah El-Din Citadel
One of Cairo’s monuments that can’t be missed is Salah El-Din citadel which was built in the 12th century by Salah El-Din to be the center for his dynasties rule and in it lies enchanting Mohammed Ali mosque a.k.a the Alabaster.
Khan El Khalili
In the old city of Cairo lies Khan El Khalili Bazaar, which the oldest active shopping street in the middle east since its construction in 1773, and right next to it is Al Muizz street, which has the largest concentration of medieval architectural treasures in the Islamic world.
The Egyptian Museum
Across the infamous Tahrir Square is the house of mystery the Egyptian museum that holds more than 100,000 artifacts from various time periods in ancient Egypt like royal mummies, golden artifacts and boy King Tutankhamun artifacts and many others.
Location and Climate of Cairo City
Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the city’s metropolitan area is one of the largest cities in Africa, the middle east and the Arab world and the 15th largest city in the entire world. It is located on the lifestream of Egypt “the Nile River“, 135 km west of the red sea and 160 km inland from the Mediterranean, and The climate is usual as Cairo enjoys eight months of summer and four months of winter, plus the best time to visit Cairo is from October to April with an average temperature of 20 C (67 F).
Things to do in Cairo City
Apart from sightseeing, the city of Cairo holds some of the best hotels and restaurants in the world. One of Cairo’s most famous ways of entertainment for foreign is the sound and light show of the pyramids as colored lights with recorded voices of these amazing monuments and the full history of the great pyramids of Giza plays.
The city is filled with many nightclubs that offer the wildest nightlife in the heart of one of the oldest cities on earth. If you want to experience a different form of art then an oriental belly dancing Accompanied by the whirling dervishes is a sight to behold.